The Black Consciousness Movement is an umbrella term used to describe the black consciousness ideology and the different organisations and groups centred around it. The ideology was propagated in the sixties, mainly by students. They formed numerous organisations through which to channel their black consciousness propaganda. Steve Biko, who died in custody in September 1977, was a major exponent of the black consciousness philosophy.
Some of the most influential black consciousness groups, such as the Black People's Convention (BPC) and the South African Students' Organisation (SASO), were banned in October 1977. Subsequently the Black Consciousness Movement has been used as an umbrella term to de-scribe the different groups or organisations such as Azapo and